Utilizing Critical and Creativity Thinking to Enhance ESL Grammar and Vocabulary in Narrative Essay Writing among Malaysian Form-Four Learners


  • Raganeswari Ramasamy Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia
  • Mariam Mohamad Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia
  • Mageswaran Sanmugam Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia
  • Hooi Chee Mei Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Malaysia


critical thinking, creativity thinking, grammar, English as a Second Language (ESL) learners, vocabulary, narrative writing skills


English as a Second Language (ESL) learners need to master all the four language skills which are listening, speaking, reading, and writing unconditionally. Nevertheless, most Malaysian ESL learners face a major problem in writing skill when compared with the other three skills. The 21st century learning skills are divided into the main four skills which are communication, collaboration, critical thinking, and creativity thinking. Henceforth, this study attempts to assess the usefulness of utilizing critical and creativity thinking-based activities among Malaysian upper secondary ESL learners in developing their grammar and vocabulary features to enable them to construct an appropriate and good piece of narrative essay. The participants of this research encompassed 17 Form-Four ESL learners from a secondary school in Penang, Malaysia. It was a mixed-method study, in which data were collected quantitatively by conducting pre-test and post-test, while the data were gathered qualitatively by using participant observation and document analysis. The findings indicated that relevant grammar and vocabulary activities by incorporating critical and creativity thinking of the 21st century main skills showed positive responses among the participants. It is hoped that the critical and creativity thinking-based activities would assist in learning and teaching narrative writing skills.