The Roles of Teaching Presence in Asynchronous and Synchronous Online Teaching Contexts


  • Choo Wee Ling Faculty of Languages and Linguistics Universiti Malaya
  • Ng Lee Luan Faculty of Languages and Linguistics Universiti Malaya


online learning, teaching presence, asynchronous learning, synchronous learning, Community of Inquiry


Asynchronous and synchronous modes of learning are pivotal to the landscape of online education. To gain more insights into the effectiveness of online teaching practices, it is essential to investigate the teaching practice in online learning contexts, specifically how the teaching presence of instructors affect students’ learning in asynchronous or synchronous situations. This study aims to find out if the teaching presence varies between the two modes of learning through the lens of Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework. Additionally, it seeks to compare the factors impacting learners’ experiences in teaching presence. A total of 94 ESL tertiary learners answered the CoI questionnaire and 19 learners were interviewed. The results revealed that the perceived teaching presence between the two groups did not differ statistically. Findings from the interviews showed that the instructor’s interactivity is a pertinent factor in increasing teaching presence in both groups. Additionally, it seems learners from the asynchronous group valued the instructor’s feedback and positive characteristics while the instructor’s facilitation was essential for those from the synchronous group. The outcome of the study could potentially provide insights and practical solutions in relation to the functions of teaching presence in enhancing the learning experience of learners attending online lessons.